The urinary bladder is a temporary storage reservoir for urine. It is located in the pelvic cavityposterior to the symphysis pubisand below the parietal peritoneum.
The size and shape of the urinary bladder varies with the amount of urine it contains and with the pressure it receives from surrounding organs. The inner lining of the urinary bladder is a mucous membrane of transitional epithelium that is continuous with that in the ureters.
When the bladder is empty, the mucosa has numerous folds called rugae. The rugae and transitional epithelium allow the bladder to expand as it fills. The second layer in the walls is the submucosawhich supports the mucous membrane. It is composed of connective tissue with elastic fibers. The next layer is the muscularis, which is composed of smooth muscle.
The smooth muscle fibers are interwoven in all directions and, collectively, these are called the detrusor muscle. Contraction of this muscle expels urine from the bladder.
On the superior surface, the outer layer of the bladder wall is parietal peritoneum. In all other regions, the outer layer is fibrous connective tissue. There is a triangular area, called the trigoneformed by three openings in the floor of the urinary bladder. Two of the openings are from the ureters and form the base of the trigone. Small flaps of mucosa cover these openings and act as valves that allow urine to enter the bladder but prevent it from backing up from the bladder into the ureters.
The third opening, at the apex of the trigone, is the opening into the urethra. A band of the detrusor muscle encircles this opening to form the internal urethral sphincter.The preferable method of monitoring those patients who are at high risk of developing vesical neoplasia has been an annual check-up inclusive of cystoscopy and cold cup bladder biopsy of all suspicious areas as well as predetermined random sites.
It may be desirable to take a biopsy from one site when there is no suspicious lesion with a flexible cystoscope while the patient is sitting in the wheelchair itself in the outpatient clinic instead of multiple biopsies from the done, trigone and both lateral walls of the urinary bladder taken in the operation theatre set-up using a rigid cystoscope with the patient positioned in lithotomy. Before adopting such a cost-saving and more convenient procedure routinely, we evaluated whether any significant additional histopathological findings are obtained by taking bladder biopsies from the dome and the trigone of the urinary bladder instead of just one, be it dome or trigone in the absence of any visible urothelial lesion in the bladder.
All the biopsy specimens were evaluated by a pathologist who was unaware of the clinical details and not involved with the primary diagnosis. Although single site biopsy may be less traumatic, more convenient to the patient as well as to the staff, and cost saving, in the spinal cord injury patients with neuropathic bladder, it may not be diagnostically adequate even in those patients who do not have any cystoscopically distinguishable lesion in the urinary bladder.
Publication types Comparative Study.U rinary bladder is a hollow muscular viscus that acts as a reservoir of urine. Gross features and relations. It is connected to the umbilicus by median umbilical ligament remnant of urachus.
Comparative pathology of dome and trigone of urinary bladder mucosa in paraplegics and tetraplegics
In males it is related to ampulla of vas deferens and seminal vesicle. It lies cm. It is pierced by internal urethral meatus. True ligaments : Are condensations of pelvic fascia. False ligaments : Are formed by peritoneal folds. Uvula vesicae : Is a rounded elevation just behind the urethral orifice which is formed by the median lobe of the prostate.
In old aged man, the uvula vesicae may be enlarged due to enlargement of prostate and obstruct the outflow of urine through the internal urethral orifice. Arteries supplying urinary bladder : It is supplied by branches of internal iliac artery. The afferent fibers carry pain sensation.
The cortical voluntary control is lost. The bladder overfills and overflows. Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email.
Notify me of new posts by email. Contents 1 Describe the location, shape and gross features of urinary bladder. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.The trigone a. The area is very sensitive to expansion and once stretched to a certain degree, the urinary bladder signals the brain of its need to empty.
The signals become stronger as the bladder continues to fill. Embryologically, the trigone of the bladder is derived from the caudal end of mesonephric ductswhich is of mesodermal origin the rest of the bladder is endodermal. In the female the mesonephric ducts regress, causing the trigone to be less prominent, but still present. Clinically important because infections trigonitis tend to persist in this region. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The Anatomical Record. Anatomy of the urinary system. Arteries Renal artery segmental interlobar arcuate interlobular afferent Veins Renal vein Peritubular capillaries Vasa recta arcuate interlobar efferent. Glomerulus Bowman's capsule Glomerular basement membrane Podocyte Filtration slits Mesangium Intraglomerular mesangial cell.
Macula densa Juxtaglomerular cells Mesangium Extraglomerular mesangial cell. Ureteropelvic junction. Internal urethral orifice Urethral sphincters External male female Internal Male urethra pre-prostatic prostatic intermediate spongy navicular fossa Lacunae of Morgagni urethral gland Urinary meatus.
Authority control TA98 : A Categories : Urinary system.
trigone of bladder
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Download as PDF Printable version. Urinary bladder. The interior of bladder. Anatomical terminology [ edit on Wikidata ]. Renal corpuscle Glomerulus Bowman's capsule Glomerular basement membrane Podocyte Filtration slits Mesangium Intraglomerular mesangial cell. TA98 : ATrigonitis is a condition where the the cells lining the lower part of the bladder undergo changes into a different cell type.
The affected part of the bladder is known as the trigone, hence the term trigonitis. There is often confusion about trigonitis since the term -itis usually indicates inflammation.Queen xl mattress cover
While there may have been some inflammation, the condition trigonitis specifically focuses on the changes in the normal cells lining the bladder. The concept of cells undergoing abnormal changes raises the question about cancer.Yuv420p to rgb
However, the cellular changes in trigonitis is benign non-cancerous and does not have any potential to become malignant cancerous. Trigonitis mainly occurs in women of childbearing age. It occurs in a minority of men and is almost never seen in children. Trigonitis where there are changes in the type of tissue lining the bladder is more correctly known by the medical term pseudomembranous trigonitis. Although the term trigonitis can also refer to inflammation of the bladder lining, this is usually encompassed by the term cystitis.
The trigone of the urinary bladder is the triangular shaped area on the back wall of the bladder. It is marked by three points :. The trigone is smooth compared to the rough internal wall of the rest of the bladder. Most of the urinary tract is lined by a tissue known as the urothelium.
It is an epithelial tissue similar to that lining the gut but is specialized to deal with the urinary tract environment. Urothelium is about 3 to 5 layers thick, highly elastic and regenerates very quickly to maintain the inner lining of the urinary tract.Urinary - Ureters, Urinary Bladder, Urethra
Internal view of the bladder picture from Wikimedia Commons. In trigonitis, it is this urothelium that undergoes changes in a process known as metaplasia. The urothelium transforms into squamous epithelium, with scale-like cells. These cells are seen on the skin where it becomes filled with a protein known as keratin which provides waterproofing and mechanical protection.
However, the urothelium that become squamous epithelium in trigonitis is usually non-keratinized, similar to the lining of the mouth. There is a variant of trigonitis where the squamous epithelium become keratinized, similar to the skin. In this type of trigonitis, some of the urine seeps into the deeper layers of the tissue lining the bladder.
It occurs because of the spaces between the keratinized squamous epithelium cells as well as the lack of mucus normally produced in small quantities by the urothelium. There are several theories as to why this tissue changes from urothelium into non-keratinized squamous epithelium. Some of these contributing factors may be more likely for women than men, or in certain situations. However, it is important to note that the exact cause of trigonitis is unknown.
It has been discovered from biopsies tissue samples that the tissue which undergoes changes have receptors for hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.
This may support the theory that the tissue change in trigonitis is a result of hormones. It may also possibly explain why the condition is more frequently seen in women of childbearing age, a period when these hormones are at its highest levels in life.
Trigone of urinary bladder
A hormonal cause may also explain why trigonitis is more likely in men undergoing hormone therapy for prostate cancer. It is possible that the tissue changes that marks trigonitis arises as a result of chronic infection of the lower urinary tract. Recurrent cystitis bladder infection causes repeated and ongoing inflammation of the tissue lining the bladder.
This may trigger changes in cell growth and differentiation eventually leading to metaplasia as is see in trigonitis.
Chronic irritation may also be a factor in the development of trigonitis in much the same wys as an infection. Persistent irritation of the trigone in this manner may be seen with the long term insertion of an indwelling urinary catheter which may be used for :.Who Will Win KT Vs RR Eliminator match.Zero 95 dromana gelato
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